• James Simon Welch James Simon Welch

The nature and impact of psychosocial issues experienced by adults with LD is not a well-researched area. Within the existing literature, several studies have highlighted the enduring emotional and social effects of LD in adulthood, including low self-esteem, reduced self-efficacy and interpersonal difficulties. However, there are various methodological issues that affect the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies, which limits the knowledge base and practical application of findings in this area. Currently, there is no measure that has been specifically designed and validated to assess the psychological functioning of adults with LD. To address this significant shortcoming, the broad objective of this research was to develop, pilot and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Adult Learning Experiences Scale (ALES). The ALES was designed to measure the distinct but inter-related constructs of personal appraisals (academic self-efficacy, situational cognitions and general beliefs), emotional reactions and coping and compensatory behaviours, which were considered most relevant to the psychological functioning of adults with language-related learning difficulties (LRLD).