Abstract-Sanitation is a critical, though often forgotten or neglected determint for survival in the initial stages of a disaster or an emergency situation. Global stakeholders have developed guidelines and created minimum standards required for a disaster relief situation but unfortutely, the lessons learned from previous experience indicates a persistent range of problems, such as damaged sanitation systems, idequate assessment mechanisms, ippropriate technology choices and the lack of health promoting behaviours. This paper addresses sanitation issues in the context of the 2010 Mt Merapi eruption in Indonesia and describes the specific characteristics of this tural disaster and the affected population. It reviews how the relevant stakeholders addressed problems and issues affecting sanitation. It identifies opportunities and challenges relevant to sanitation in emergency situations and proposes recommendations for appropriate practices in the future. Keywords-Sanitation; Disaster; Emergencies; Mt Merapi; Indonesia