This paper reviews the latest developments in the design and fabrication of concentration gradient generators for microfluidics-based biological applications. New gradient generator designs and their underlying mass transport principles are discussed. The review provides a blueprint for design considerations of concentration gradients in different applications, specifically biological studies. The paper discusses the basic phenome associated with microfluidic gradient generation and the different gradient generation modes used in static and dymic biological assays. Filly, the paper summarizes all factors to consider when using concentration gradient generators and puts forward perspectives on the future development of these devices.
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