Fio Paisley follows the impact of PPWA in another direction and into a later period. Just as Bosch's article considers the interl complexity of Dutch tiol womanhood in an intertiol environment, so too does Paisley trace how intertiol venues such as the PPWA facilitated the diversification of feminist practice in the United States. She focuses on two very different figures, both of whom used the PPWA to make the case for African American women on an intertiol feminist stage, and for intertiol women's organisations as a venue for African Americans and other tiol minorities. The first of these women, Pearl Sherrod Takahashi, is one of several fasciting and idiosyncratic characters brought to a wider audience in this special issue. Much like the PPWA itself, Takahashi's career of feminist activism illustrates the transformative (and subversive) uses that subordited peoples could make of European traditions of racial uplift. The second of Paisley's figures, Ella P. Stewart, helped to transform this tradition even further. Following Stewart's participation in the remed Pan Pacific and South East Asian Women's Association, Paisley brings the first wave of intertiol feminism through WWII and into a new period, shaped by the cold War and the growing assertions of the Non Aligned tions.