As an emerging research field, nofluids have sparked immense interest from researchers around the world and have been a subject of intensive research in recent years. Because of their fasciting thermophysical properties and heat transfer performances, as well as enormous potential applications, nofluids are considered the next generation heat transfer fluids. This book covers a wide range of topics from preparation methodology, properties, and theories to applications of nofluids. In addition to the state-of-the-art reviews and alysis on the key areas of nofluids including thermophysical and heat transfer properties of carbon notube and magnetic nofluids, viscosity of metal oxide nofluids and pool boiling of nofluids, this book presents extensive experimental and theoretical research efforts on thermal conductivity, viscosity, convective heat transfer, capillary wetting, and transport properties of nofluids. Studies on the application of nofluids in droplet-based microfluidic technology are presented. Another new area of nofluid-based optical engineering is explored in this book. It also introduces a new class of nofluids med-ionofluids. Featuring contributions from some of the leading researchers in the field, this book is a unique reference source and an invaluable guide to scientists, researchers, engineers, industrial people, graduate and postgraduate students, as well as academicians across the science and engineering disciplines.