BACKGROUND: This research investigates the extent to which the holistic, multistrategy ''health-promoting school'' (HPS) model using a resilience intervention can lead to improved resilience among students. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design using a study cohort selected from 20 primary schools in Queensland, Australia was employed. Ten intervention schools using HPS protocols, with training support, were compared with 10 control schools in student resilience scores and protective factors. Baseline data explored the interactive effect of protective factors on overall resilience scores. Postintervention alysis compared changes in protective factors and resilience, after implementing the HPS project. RESULTS: Baseline data alysis indicated no significant differences in the mean scores of protective factors and resilience scores between intervention and control groups (except for school connection). After 18 months of implementation, a resurvey showed that the intervention group had significantly higher scores than the control group on students' family connection, community connection, peer support, and their overall resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that students in the HPS group had significantly higher scores on resilience than did students in the control group. A comprehensive, whole-school approach to building resilience that integrates students, staff, and community can strengthen important protective factors and build student resilience. Keywords: health-promoting school; resilience; socio-ecological model; primary school students.
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