Objective: To identify health conditions associated with productivity loss in working Australians, adjusting for comorbidity, demographics, and work-related characteristics. Methods: The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit study cross-sectiol screening data set was used to identify health-related productivity losses in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. Data collected with the World Health Organisation Health and Productivity Questionire were alyzed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively. Results: Health conditions impacted on both presenteeism and absenteeism. Drug and alcohol problems and psychological distress had a greater impact on absenteeism and presenteeism than other investigated health conditions. Demographic characteristics, health status (comorbidity), and work-related characteristics all impacted significantly on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Conclusion: Mental health conditions contributed more strongly to productivity loss than other investigated health conditions.